Nenni, Pietro


Nenni, Pietro
(1891–1979)
   The dominant figure in the Partito Socialista Italiano/Italian Socialist Party (PSI) for much of this century, Pietro Nenni began his political career in his native province of Forli (Emilia-Romagna) as a militant of the Partito Repubblicana Italiano/Italian Republican Party (PRI). One of the organizers (Benito Mussolini was another) of a series of strikes and public protests against Italy’s 1911 colonial war in Libya, Nenni was arrested and sentenced to several months’ imprisonment. His opposition to war was not repeated in 1915, however. In line with his party, Nenni supported intervention and served at the front as an infantryman. This experience made him strongly critical of the PSI’s hostility to the war. In 1919, Nenni was even one of the founding members of Bologna’s fascio di combattimento (Combat Veterans’League). Instead of Nenni evolving into a Fascist, however, his experience during the turbulent “red biennial” (1919–1921) caused him to reexamine his most fundamental ideological views and to edge toward reconciliation with the PSI. Nenni became a journalist for the PSI daily Avanti! in 1921 and, in December 1922, as editor of the paper, opposed the party leadership’s attempts to woo Moscow by merging with the breakaway Partito Comunista Italiano/Italian Communist Party (PCI). Believing, pragmatically, that the PSI should rather concentrate on rallying all of Italy’s democratic forces against the common Fascist enemy, Nenni became an isolated figure and, in 1925, was forced to resign from the paper’s editorial board. The following year, he took refuge in France.
   While in exile in Paris, Nenni was the architect of the reunification of the reformist and “maximalist” wings of the Italian socialist movement in 1930. He became party leader in 1933 and also editor of Avanti! Despite his past hostility to the PCI, Nenni supported the “Popular Front,” fighting personally in the International Brigade in Spain. His antifascist activities were interrupted in 1941 when he was taken prisoner by the Germans and handed over to the Italian government, which imprisoned him on the island of Ponza (Campania). His daughter, Vittoria, was less fortunate; she died in Auschwitz in July 1943.
   Released from prison, Nenni took a leadership role in the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia/National Liberation Committee-Northern Italy (CLNAI). Under his direction, the PSI—unlike the PCI—refused to join the cabinet of Ivanoe Bonomi. In April–May 1945, Nenni was the primary contender to head the new all-Italian government. The British viewed this prospect with frank horror, and Ferruccio Parri was eventually chosen as prime minister. Nenni did become vice premier and minister in charge of organizing the elections to the Constituent Assembly in the first administration formed by Alcide De Gasperi in December 1945. The PSI fought the elections of June 1946 in the company of the PCI, emerging as the second-largest party in Italy after the Democrazia Cristiana/Christian Democracy Party (DC), with 20 percent of the vote. Nenni had the sensitive post of foreign minister in De Gasperi’s second administration but was unable to follow a pro-Soviet foreign policy. Within a few months, the wily De Gasperi had reshuffled his government to exclude both the PCI and the PSI. Nenni became increasingly convinced in the 1950s that the PSI had to assert its independence from the PCI. After regaining the party leadership in 1953, he seized the opportunity provided by the Soviet crushing of the Hungarian revolution in 1956 to inch away from the PCI and eventually, between 1960 and 1963, to join the DC in government. Nenni believed that the PSI’s participation would lead to major changes in the structure of Italian society, but he overestimated the extent to which the PSI could make its voice count. Nenni was the principal architect of the failed attempt to merge the Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano/Italian Social Democratic Party (PSDI) with the PSI between 1966 and 1968. He died in Rome in 1979.

Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. . 2007.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nenni, Pietro — ► (1891 1980) Político socialista italiano. En 1944 fue designado secretario del Partido Socialista Italiano. Fue vicepresidente en 1945 46 y en el gobierno de Aldo Moro en 1963 68 …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Nenni, Pietro Sandro — ▪ Italian journalist and politician born Feb. 9, 1891, Faenza, Italy died Jan. 1, 1980, Rome  journalist and politician who was leader of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), twice foreign minister, and several times vice premier of Italy.  The son …   Universalium

  • Nenni, Pietro (Sandro) — born Feb. 9, 1891, Faenza, Italy died Jan. 1, 1980, Rome Italian politician. He joined the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) in 1921 and edited its newspaper, Avanti! (1922–26). After criticizing the Fascist Party and Benito Mussolini, he was… …   Universalium

  • Nenni, Pietro (Sandro) — (9 feb. 1891, Faenza, Italia–1 ene. 1980, Roma). Político italiano. Se unió al Partido Socialista Italiano (PSI) en 1921 y trabajó como editor del periódico del PSI, Avanti! (1922–26). Después de criticar al Partido Fascista y a Benito Mussolini …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Nenni — Nenni, Pietro …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Pietro Nenni — Minister of Foreign Affairs In office December 12, 1968 – August 5, 1969 Prime Minister Mariano Rumor …   Wikipedia

  • Nenni — Pietro Nenni (* 9. Februar 1891 in Faenza; † 1. Januar 1980 in Rom) war ein italienischer Politiker und Außenminister des Landes. Leben Zunächst pazifistischer Journalist, trat er 1908 in die PRI ein, nach den traumatischen Erfahrungen des Ersten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • NENNI (P.) — NENNI PIETRO (1891 1980) Né en Romagne dans une famille prolétarienne, Pietro Nenni se lance à vingt ans dans la lutte ouvrière au cours d’une grève contre la guerre de Libye; il fait plusieurs séjours en prison pour activités «anarchistes» et… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pietro — (as used in expressions) Antonio di Pietro Averlino Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci Pietro Pierleoni Guido di Pietro Aretino Pietro Badoglio Pietro Bembo Pietro Pietro Spagnuolo Pietro Francesco Caletti Bruni Cavallini Pietro Francesco di Pietro di …   Universalium

  • Pietro — (as used in expressions) Pietro Pierleoni Guido di Pietro Aretino, Pietro Badoglio, Pietro Bembo, Pietro Pietro Spagnuolo Pietro Francesco Caletti Bruni Cavallini, Pietro Antonio di Pietro Averlino Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone Giulio di… …   Enciclopedia Universal


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.